Research Brief

Differences in well-being amongst Somali, Latino and Hmong adolescents

Students at the U
Researchers examined the relationship between acculturation and substance use, socioemotional well-being and academic achievement.

 According to the World Health Organization (WHO), mental health illness and substance use disorders are key contributors to disability in young adulthood, and disparities in substance use persist along levels of academic achievement and socioeconomic status. 

“Given the increase of multicultural communities, the political climate of U.S. immigration policy, and an increase in xenophobia, racism and Islamophobia — it is crucial to identify factors that impede healthy development of immigrant and refugee origin youth (IROY). Such as the cross-sectional relationships between immigration-related factors and adolescent well-being to inform prevention programming,” said Eunice Areba, a clinical assistant professor in the School of Nursing. 

In a recent American Journal of Orthopsychiatry article, a research team from the University of Minnesota examined the psychological, social and behavioral aspects of adolescent health among Somali, Latino and Hmong adolescents related to their level of acculturation (e.g., length of stay in the U.S., language use and nativity) to the majority culture and environment.

The adolescents were participants in the School of Public Health’s long-running Project EAT (Eating and Activity over Time) study, which tracks the health and well-being of adolescents into adulthood. Areba and her colleagues found that:

  • Hmong adolescents were the most acculturated, whereas Somali adolescents were the least acculturated.
  • There were significant differences in substance use, socioemotional health and academic achievement across Somali, Hmong and Latino youth.
  • Somali youth reported the lowest involvement in substance use, whereas Latino youth reported the highest involvement.
  • Latino and Hmong students reported significantly lower self-esteem and higher depressive symptoms compared with Somali youth.
  • Somali and Hmong adolescents reported higher academic achievement than Latino adolescents.
  • And, regardless of ethnicity, greater acculturation was associated with higher odds of alcohol and marijuana use and lower academic achievement (evident for only Latino and Somali adolescents).

Overall, acculturation was positively associated with substance use and negatively with academic achievement in adolescence. To help address these disparities, the researchers suggest learning institutions consider adapting prevention programs that include supporting multilingual and multicultural learners, and account for cultural assets within immigrant families that maintain and nurture protective factors as adolescents transition into young adulthood.

“Learning institutions must be inclusive environments that decrease the likelihood of academic underachievement. Additionally, communities should acknowledge and support immigrant and refugee family cultural assets that nurture adolescent health as they transition into young adulthood,” said Areba.

Future research will need to consider the reasons for migration and the social and geopolitical context within which refugee and immigrant communities reside. This study was funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and supported by Dianne Neumark-Sztainer in the School of Public Health. 


About the University of Minnesota School of Nursing
Founded in 1909 and recognized as the birthplace of university-based nurse education, the University of Minnesota School of Nursing continues to lead the profession into the future. With a mission to generate knowledge and prepare nurse leaders who create, lead and participate in holistic efforts to improve the health of all people, the school and its research are addressing health issues across the life span with a focus on health promotion among vulnerable populations, prevention and management of chronic health conditions, symptom management, and health/nursing informatics and systems innovation. The school is ranked among the top programs in nursing informatics and is internationally renowned for its efforts to improve health and health care through the use of big data.

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